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Has God answered those questions? Yes, in the pages of the Bible. ( 2Timothy 3:16 ) ‘But how,’ you may ask, ‘can I be sure that the Bible really is from God?’ From a scientific point of view, what the Bible says about the world around us must harmonize with scientific fact, for God does not contradict himself. Does the Bible reflect such harmony? Consider a few examples.

Scientifically Ahead of Its Time

When the Bible was being written, many people believed that various gods inhabited the world and that those gods, not natural laws, controlled the sun, the moon, the weather, fertility, and so on. But that was not the case with the ancient Hebrew prophets of God. Of course, they knew that Jehovah God could directly control the natural world and that he did so on specific occasions. ( Joshua 10:12-14; 2Kings 20:9-11 ) Nevertheless, John Lennox, professor of mathematics at the University of Oxford, England, observed that those prophets “did not have to have their universe de-deified [of mythical gods]..., for the simple reason that they had never believed in the gods in the first place. What had saved them from that superstition was their belief in One True God, Creator of heaven and earth.”

How did that belief protect them from superstition? For one thing, the true God revealed to them that he governs the universe by precise laws, or statutes. For example, more than 3,500 years ago, Jehovah God asked his servant Job: “Have you come to know the statutes of the heavens?” ( Clearance Websites Affordable Online UNDERWEAR Bras ONE by Oneteaspoon X l8Nmp7EA1p
) In the seventh century B.C.E., the prophet Jeremiah wrote about “the statutes of heaven and earth.”​— Jeremiah 33:25 .

Hence, all who lived in ancient times and had faith in the writings of the Bible prophets could know that the universe was governed, not by mythical, temperamental deities, but by rational laws. As a result, those God-fearing individuals neither bowed down to created entities, such as the sun, the moon, or the stars, nor did they have a superstitious attitude toward them. ( Deuteronomy 4:15-19 ) Rather, they saw God’s works as objects of study that reveal his wisdom, power, and other qualities.​— Psalm 8:3-9; Proverbs 3:19,20 .

In harmony with the views of many scientists today, the ancient Hebrews also believed that the universe had a beginning. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,” says Genesis 1:1 . Also, some 3,500 years ago, God revealed to his servant Job that the earth ‘hangs on nothing,’ or is suspended in space. ( Job 26:7 ) And finally, more than 2,500 years ago, the prophet Isaiah wrote that the earth is a circle or sphere.​— Isaiah 40:22 .

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FIG. 6.

Real-time RT-PCR of selected genes from the microarray. Twelve genes identified from the microarray data were assayed by real-time RT-PCR. cDNAs for these experiments were synthesized using the same RNA samples as in the microarray. The data were normalized relative to the gene expression values of the planktonic samples, which were arbitrarily assigned a value of 1 and are not shown in the graph. White bars are results from the “+/− saliva” experiments, and the bars shaded in gray are the results from the “saliva +/− lysine” experiments. Shown here is one representative data set. This experiment was performed three times with similar results each time.

Centrifugation can induce a similar response as autoaggregation. Given the large change in cell density that occurs as a result of autoaggregation, we were curious as to whether centrifuged cells would exhibit a similar gene response as aggregated cells. As described in Materials and Methods, we centrifuged 25586 using a low-speed spin and resuspended 1 set of samples in SDM. The cell pellets were incubated in either fresh SDM, SDM plus 25% saliva, or SDM plus 25% saliva plus 50 mM l- lysine. Since we previously assayed the response to ∼1 h of autoaggregation, we incubated the dispersed and pelleted samples for 1 h before extracting RNA. As shown in Fig. Victoria Beckham Woman Oneshoulder Appliquéd Silk And Woolblend Crepe Dress Black Size 12 Victoria Beckham Cheap Sale Pay With Visa Largest Supplier Cheap Online QcU79JJ3bf
, half of the genes we previously tested by RT-PCR were also responsive to 1 h of incubation as a cell pellet. As expected, we saw no evidence that saliva could specifically alter the expression pattern of any of the 12 genes we tested. Interestingly, l- lysine was still able to inhibit the induction of FN1989, FN1988, FN1586, and FN0941 despite the extremely high cell density of the cell pellets. However, this was not the case for both FN0085 and FN0078, which were similarly responsive to high cell density regardless of medium composition. FN0085 and FN0078 also exhibited a greater induction in cell pellets compared to precipitated autoaggregates (Fig. 6 and 7 ), which suggests that both genes probably exhibit greater expression with increasing cell density.

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FIG. 7.

Real-time RT-PCR of genes induced by centrifugation. Of the 12 genes tested from the autoaggregation microarray, 6 were found to be inducible by centrifugation. Cell pellets were incubated for 1 h after centrifugation before the RNA was extracted to be used for the RT-PCR analysis. The data are normalized relative to the gene expression values of the dispersed samples, which were arbitrarily assigned a value of 1 and are not shown in the graph. White bars are representative of gene expression in cell pellets incubated in SDM, gray bars represent data from cell pellets incubated in SDM plus 25% saliva, and black bars represent data from cell pellets incubated in SDM plus 25% saliva plus 50 mM lysine. Shown here are the averages of three independent experiments.

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Autoaggregation seems to be a common phenomenon among oral bacterial isolates, although it appears to be largely strain specific. The species F. nucleatum is perhaps best known for its prodigious repertoire of coaggregations; however, little has been reported regarding the autoaggregation of this species. In F. nucleatum ATCC strain 25586, we found a rapid autoaggregation response in the presence of saliva but found no evidence for this ability in the closely related strain ATCC 23726. Recently, two separate reports examining multiple fresh clinical isolates of F. nucleatum both reported autoaggregation in their strains ( 20 , 35 ), and a similar finding was recently reported with canine fusobacterial isolates as well ( 10 ). Thus, it may be that some laboratory strains of F. nucleatum have lost this ability upon subculturing, similar to what is routinely seen with A. actinomycetemcomitans ( 11 , Mih Jeans Woman Cotton Shirt White Size L Mih Jeans Outlet 2018 Newest 2018 Unisex Sale Manchester tXnpc
). Certainly, strain-specific differences in genetic content may also account for differences in autoaggregation. Surprisingly, we found autoaggregation in 25586 to be inhibited by lysine, similar to its coaggregation with streptococci ( Preowned Silk handbag Rochas Free Shipping Online Affordable Online Buy Cheap Latest Collections cDogSC
). In addition, our microarray data suggest that autoaggregation impacts the expression of a large number of genes in a relatively short time frame. Since we assayed the effect of autoaggregation using two different conditions and found strikingly similar transcriptional responses, there is reason to suspect that these genes are indeed regulated by some signal(s) related to aggregation. Whether this signal occurs as a result of changes in nutrient availability, short-range gradients of diffusible molecules, or direct cell-cell contact remains to be determined. In addition, many of these same transcriptional responses could be recreated simply by centrifuging the cells and incubating them as a cell pellet. Interestingly, under these conditions, lysine was still able to function as an inhibitor. It should also be noted that the microarray data exhibited no changes in any typical stress response genes, suggesting the transcriptional responses were unlikely to be attributable to either starvation or toxicity derived from saliva or lysine. To the best of our knowledge, these are also the first microarray data for F. nucleatum .

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Legionella

. Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.

Contents

Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Legionellales; Legionellaceae

Legionella pneumophila, L. feeleii, L. sainthelensi

Legionella is related to the genus Coxiella . Legionella is best known for causing Legionnaire's disease. The bacteria are ubiquitous. Although largely aquatic, they can thrive in areas other than lakes and streams (see below). Legionella has a bad reputation because of its pathogenicity, although complete recovery from Legionnaire's is probable upon proper diagnosis.

Research on the Legionella genome structure is underway. Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila str. Philadelphia 1 was completed in 2001. Sequined Stretchtulle Gown Black Dolce amp; Gabbana Cheap Factory Outlet Discount Latest Collections i7tJ6Qp
was completed in October of 2004; the full genome was completed around the same time. Plasmid pLPL of Legionella pneumophila str. Lens was also complete in October of 2004, in addition to the complete genome .

Pathogenic cycle of . Virulence Factors of Pathogenic Bacteria.

Legionella are Gram-negative. They can be rod- or coccoid-shaped. Most species are motile, and have one to three polar or lateral flagellae.

Legionella are aerobic bacteria. They use amino acids for energy. In addition, many Legionella species, such as Legionella lytica , are parasites of eukaryotic cells, and aquire energy from their hosts.

Legionella do not form spores. There are two major phases to the life cycle. The first is called the replicative phase. During this period, the bacteria are nonmotile and have a low toxicity. In the second phase, called the infectious phase, the bacteria are shorter and thicker. They have developed flagella and are highly toxic.

Legionella have the capability of surviving within biofilms, particularly in man-made water systems. In these types of environments, extracellular growth is often a necessity, and the biofilms permit this growth. Evidence suggests that a majority, if not all, legionella are associated with biofilms.

Legionella pneumophila is the bacteria that causes Legionnaire's disease. The is a pneumonic illness. It was first discovered in Philadelphis in 1976, when it caused an outbreak of pneumonia at an American Legion Convention, infecting 221 people and killing 34. Legionnaire's disease is difficult to distinguish from any other type of pneumonia. The four major methods for diagnosis are: determination of antibody level, demonstration of the bacterium in tissues or body fluids by using immunofluorescent microscopy, actual isolation of the organism on culture media, and detection of antigenuria. If left untreated, the disease has a 5-80% mortality rate. Immunocompromised individuals are less likely to survive an infection than immunocompetent patients. Risk factors for Legionnaire's disease include: immunosuppression, cigarette smoking, renal failure, age greater than 50 years, AIDS, hematologic malignancies, and lung cancer. In addition, males are more likely to become infected with L. pneumophila than women. Alcohol abuse may be a factor, but that has not yet been determined. Legionnaire's disease is most commonly spread through aerosols. Air-conditioning cooling towers, whirlpool spas, sink taps and shower heads are all major sources for L. pneumophila . Because Legionella form symbiotic relationshiops with amoebas, outbreaks of the disease are often correlated with the presence of amoebas.

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The Anterior Cervical Lip: how to ruin a perfectly goodbirth

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Here is a scenario I keep hearing over and over: A woman is labouring away and all is good. She begins to push with contractions, and her midwife encourages her to follow her body. After a little while the midwife checks to ‘see what is happening’ and finds an anterior cervical lip. The woman is told to stop pushing because she is ‘not fully dilated’ and will damage herself. Her body is lying to her – she is not ready to push. The woman becomes confused and frightened. She is unable to stop pushing and fights her body creating more pain.Because she is unable to stop pushing she may be advised to have an epidural. An epidural is inserted along with all the accompanying machines and monitoring. Later, another vaginal examination finds that the cervix has fully dilated and now she is coached to push. The end of the story is usually an instrumental birth (ventouse or forceps) for an epidural related problem – fetal distress caused by directed pushing ; ‘failure to progress’; baby mal-positioned due to supine position and reduced pelvic tone. Themessage the woman takes from her birth is that her body failed her, when in fact it was the midwife/system that failed her. Before anyone gets defensive – I am not pointing fingers or blaming individuals, because Ihave been that midwife. Like most midwives I was taught that women must not push until the cervix has fully dilated. This assumption has been taught to midwives since the 1930s and Ina May herself warned against ‘early pushing’ in Spiritual Midwifery.This post is an attempt to prompt some re-thinking about this issue, or rather this non-issue.

Anatomy and Physiology

Birth is an extremely complex physiological process but very simplistically 3 main things occur:

But this is not a step-by-step process – it’s all happening at the same time, and at different rates. So whilst the cervix is dilating the baby is also rotating and descending.

1. Dilatation of the cervix

The cervix does not open as depicted in obstetric dilatation models ie. in a nice neat circle ( Somerset lowback velvet maxi dress Racil Limited Edition Sale Online Buy Cheap Cheapest Free Shipping Supply Visit New Cheap Price Discount Choice mjN3oVFkg
). It opens from the back to the front like an ellipse. The ‘os’ (opening) is foundtucked at the back of the vagina in early labour and opens forward.At some point in labour almost every woman will have an anterior lip because this is the last part of the cervix to be pulled up over the baby’s head. Whether this lip is detected depends on whether/when a vaginal examination is performed. A posterior lip is almost unheard of because this part of the cervix disappears first. Or rather it becomes difficult to reach with fingers first.

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